If the pyramids are cut into 30 cm planks, you can build a one meter high wall that surrounds all of France. If they are cut into a 6 cm thick bar, you can build a path up to a quarter the distance away Moon. The Great Pyramid is approximately 4,600 years old, contains 2.3 million limestone blocks and weighs approximately 6 million stons.
No one was able to ease the pain of the ill and the wounded better than the ancient Egyptian doctors who understood the mysterious connection between the complexity of the human body, the supernatural world and the hidden power of nature. In ancient times, the Egyptians declared medicine as a necessary art and the Egyptian doctors were the absolute elite and renowned all over the ancient world for their exceptional skill in this art form. The medical practice in Egypt was highly advance as it was the main reason for the rise of any medical practice in Greece and Rome. But also their explanations of these afflictions was based on the belief they were the work of the gods, caused by the presence of the evil spirits and the only cure was to rid the body of their influence by praying to the gods and accompanied by various medications and a possible surgical operation. Facts About Ancient Egyptian Medicine The level of their advanced practices and traits was mind-blowing as they understood that any illness or a wound can be tread by using Pharmaceutical more than 3000 years ago, recognized the potential healing abilities in massage and aromas, had male and female doctors who specialized in different areas of medicine and more importantly understood the importance of cleanliness while treating the patients which indicated their early understanding for the concept of germs which was later confirmed in the 19th century CE, all these factors and medical procedures led the mortality rate in ancient Egypt to be less than any European hospital in the Christian era until the mid 20th century. The art of medicine of the ancient Egyptian is extensively documented from the 33rd century BC until 525 BC. One of the documents was a passage of the Odyssey in 800 BC where he states “the Egyptian men are more skilled in medicine than any of humankind” and “the Egyptians were skilled in medicine more than any of other art forms”. In 440 BC, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote extensively of the advance medicinal practices of the Egyptians and also Pliny the Elder wrote in favor the Egyptian doctors. Many great greek names studied medicine in ancient Egypt at the temple of Amenhotep such as Galen and Hippocrates, Herophilos and many others who acknowledged the contribution of ancient Egyptian civilization to Greek medicine and were able to study the Egyptian symbols, texts, beliefs and pass it. Doctors in Ancient Egypt During ancient Egypt, the medical profession had its own hierarchy as the profession was in third place after the chief medical officer and the inspector of physicians. The doctors had many ranks and specialized in every possible field like ophthalmology, gastroenterology, proctology, and dentistry. The doctors were referred to as “Wabau” which means ritually pure and were treated as priests who know every form of magic. Physicians in ancient Egypt could be male or female as the earliest recorded physician in the world is Hesy-Ra who was the “Chief of Dentists and Physicians” to pharaoh Djoser of the 27th century BC while The lady Peseshet (2400 BC) is the first recorded female doctor who could be the mother of Akhethohep, she is known as Imy-R Swnwt according to her tomb which translates to “Lady overseer of the lady Physicians”. In the 1st dynasty, there were institutions known as houses of life (Per Ankh) that had medical functions and was in inscriptions with physicians and the record shows that in the 19th dynasty (1292-1189 BC) the employees of the house of life enjoyed medical insurance, pensions, and sick leave. The profession of nurses was also highly respected and honored, nurses could be male or female and there was no evidence for any kind of school or professional training for nursing. Magic and Religion in Ancient Egyptian Medicine Magic and religion walked hand in hand during the ancient Egyptian civilization and had a profound effect on the Egyptian medical order. The Egyptian believed that the cause of any disease are evil gods, demons, an angry ghost and was treated as a by certain incantations, aromas, offerings, tattoos, amulets like the Eye of Horus, the knot of others and many others and praying to a deity such as Sekhmet the goddess of healing, threats and curses or Heka the god of magic who carried a staff entwined with two serpents. Diseases in Ancient Egypt The ancient Egyptian society suffered from numerous diseases we have today which include bilharziasis which is’ a disease contracted and spread through contaminated water’, trachoma which is ‘an infection of the eye’, heart disease, malaria, liver disease, dysentery, cancer, smallpox, pneumonia, typhoid, arthritis, high blood pressure, the common cold, bronchitis, tuberculosis, appendicitis, dementia, kidney stones, curvature of the spine, and ovarian cysts. In the early days of the Egyptian civilization, the doctors were considered to be magician who treated their patients with a recitation of magical spells and certain remedies which ingredients was derived from the substance or animal that had characteristic in a way similar to the symptoms of the patient, this method is called Simila Similibus (similar with similar) which can be tracked throughout history until the discovery of Homeopathy in the mother era, was written on papyrus scrolls. Medical Papyrus In 1822 AD, the translation of the rosette stone allowed the interpretation of the ancient hieroglyphics texts which led to the discovery of several medical documents dating back to 3000 BC like: The ever papyrus, the Edwin Smith Papyrus, the berlin & London medical Papyrus, the Hearst Papyrus and countless others which were able to shed some light on the medical advances of the ancient Egyptians. Out of all the Papyrus, these two documents were able to showcase and inform a great deal about the medical aspect of the ancient Egyptian civilization: The Edwin Smith Papyrus was written in 1600 BC as a textbook on surgery, trauma and details anatomical observations and notes on the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous diseases. It is viewed as a copy of several earlier texts which holds Medical information dating as early as 3000 BC. The papyrus contains the first-ever known descriptions of the cranial sutures, the cerebrospinal fluid, the external surface of the brain, and the intracranial pulsations. Imhotep in the 3rd dynasty of the old kingdom is credited as the original author of the papyrus text and founder of ancient Egyptian medicine. It also showcases the earliest known form of surgery was performed in Egypt around 2750 BC. The Ebers Papyrus was created in 1550 BC and is full of 700 magical incantations and remedies meant to cast away the evil spirits causing the diseases. The Papyrus explains that the heart is the center of the blood supply with countless vessels attached to every organ in the body and a bit of information about the kidneys. It holds the earliest documented awareness of tumors if the poorly understood ancient medical terminology has been correctly interpreted. Many information comes from the images and drawings on the walls of the Egyptian tombs and the translation of the accompanying inscriptions. The London Medical Papyrus The London Medical Papyrus (c. 1782-1570 BCE) was related to issues of the eyes, skin, burns, and pregnancy. The Berlin Medical Papyrus It also known as the Brugsch Papyrus, dates to Egypt new kingdom between 1570 and 1069 BC and deals with contraception, fertility, and includes the earliest known form of pregnancy tests. The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus of 1800 BC which dealt with mainly women’s health, pregnancy, fertility, contraception and many more. Ancient Egyptian Food The ancient Egyptians understood the concept of “you are what you eat”, the ancient Egyptians were aware of the importance of the diet and based it on the principles of moderation and balance. The Egyptian lands were highly fertile which led to mass production of many crops. The main crops of Egypt were wheat and barley which were consumed in the form of loaves that were produced in a variety of types through fermentation and baking and by adding yeast was able to enrich the nutritional value of the product. It is estimated that back then, one farmer’s crop could support twenty adults. Barley was also used for creating a bear, various kinds of vegetables and fruits were widely grown. There used oil in cocking which they extracted from the linseed plant plus they had a limited selection of spiced and herbs. The main source of protein was fish which was widely consumed while meat like sheep, goats, and various wild animals was regularly available in the upper classes only, the ancient Egyptian enforced prohibitions against certain animal-like pigs who the ancient Egyptians believed was ‘unclean’. Practices in Ancient Egypt The ancient Egyptians had an incredible knowledge in the field of human anatomy as the mummification process explains. They were aware of the existence of a pulse which was connected to the heart, they were able to develop a theory known as channels that carried air, water, and blood to the body just like how if the river Nile was blocked the crops would be ruined, they would often use laxatives to unblock these channels if the person is unwell, this indicates their understanding of the concept of blood vessels, nerves, and tendons. The ancient Egyptian doctors were required to stay healthy and to wash and shave daily to prevent the spread of any infections as written the Edwin Smith papyrus. Healing in Ancient Egypt Herbal in Ancient Egyptian Medicine Herbs played a vital role in the healing of many diseases and infection in ancient times. They would mix many combinations of herbs in a specific manner and some of the most used were garlic and onions which were seen as a source of endurance and were consumed in large quantities, plus they used other herbs like: Aloe vera was used to destroy worms, relieves headaches, soothes chest pains, burns, ulcers and for skin disease and allergies. Basil was considered excellent for the heart. Balsam Apple or Apple of Jerusalem was used as a laxative and treated skin allergies, headaches, gums and teeth infections, for asthma, liver stimulant, and weak digestion. Bayberry cleared diarrhea, soothes ulcers, shrinks hemorrhoids, and repels flies. Belladonna was considered a pain reliever as it reduces fevers, cured gums, and epilepsy. Caraway cured flatulence, digestive, and used as a breath freshener. Cardamom was used as a spice in foods, as it cured digestive and flatulence. Colchicum a.k.a “Meadow Saffron” cured rheumatism and reduces swelling. Common Juniper tree cured digestive, chest pains, and stomach cramps. Cubeb pepper treated urinary tract infections, larynx, throat infections, gum ulcers and infections, and headaches. Dill was used as a laxative and cured flatulence relieves dyspepsia and diuretic properties. Fenugreek treated respiratory disorders, cleanse the stomach, calms the liver, ease pancreas, and reduces swelling. Frankincense cleared the throat, cured larynx infections, stops bleeding, cuts phlegm, asthma, and stops vomiting. Garlic provides vitality, clears flatulence, removes digestion, used as a laxative, shrinks hemorrhoids, was believed rids the body of “spirits” and during the building of the Pyramids, the workers were given garlic on a daily basis to give them the strength needed to perform well. Henna treated astringent, stops diarrhea, and close open wounds. Honey was widely used in ancient Egypt as a natural antibiotic and to dress wounds and as a base for healing unguents. Licorice was used as a mild laxative, it expels phlegm, clams the liver, pancreas and chest and any kind of respiratory problems. Mustard plant treated vomiting and relieves chest pains. Myrrh was used to stops diarrhea, removes headaches, and soothes gums, toothaches, and backaches. Onion prevents colds, soothes sciatica, end pains, relive perspiration and other cardiovascular problems. Parsley is a diuretic substance. Mint is used to treat soothes flatulence, relive digestion, stops vomiting and used a breath freshener. Sandalwood aids digestion stops diarrhea, soothes headaches and gout Sesame was used to soothe asthma. Tamarind is a laxative. Thyme is a pain reliever. Tumeric was used to close open wounds. Poppy is used to relieving insomnia, headaches, and anesthetic, treat respiratory problems and deadens the pain. Surgery in Ancient Egypt The act of surgery was a common practice among physicians, they understood that there were three categories of injuries, treatable, contestable and untreatable. The surgical approach was made in minor ailments; they used knives, drills, hooks, scales, saws, pincers, and bandages of linen, scissors and a vase with burning incense. They also were the first to used opium as a form of pain killer and as a drugging substance during any surgery. Circumcision of males was highly common as it was performed on adult males form the ages of 10 to 14 as a custom to indicate his passage from boyhood to manhood. These surgeries were often successful as seen on the mummies and the remains found on amputations and brain surgeries. The ancient Egyptian doctors also used prosthesis such as artificial toes, eyeballs and created cosmetics like lotions, salves for skincare. Dentistry in Ancient Egypt The field of dentistry was an important field of study in ancient Egypt since the third millennium, a dental disease could be fatal as in the case of queen Hatshepsut who is died of an abscessed tooth because the Egyptian diet was based on coarse bread and filled with sand which made their teeth quality very poor. They had a role which states “There is no tooth that rots yet stays in place” that’s the way some replacement teeth were found and signs of restorative dentistry were discovered in mummies.
The Khufu ship transported the sun boats, which are 43,50 meters longA feeling of pride, happiness, and the grace of our Lord upon us, AlhamdulillahA vehicle was moved from a boat to the side of the pyramid, which is located for restoration in its place next to the pyramid and will not be moved nowThe composite (extracted) is made of 1224 AH from cedar wood, with many holes: to bind together with ropes from the half-lover and the adored plant without welds
Yesterday morning New discoveries
1- Exposing the funerary temple of Queen Nerat, the wife of King Tati
2- Discovery of burial wells, coffins and mummies dating back to the New Kingdom 3000 BC
3- Discovery of a
4-meter-long papyrus containing the texts of Chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead
5- Exposing statues, paintings, boats and wooden masks dating back to the modern state.
Dr. Mustafa Waziri, Secretary-General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, stated that the joint Egyptian mission between the Supreme Council of Antiquities and the Zahi Hawass Center for Egyptology at the Library of Alexandria, which operates in the Saqqara antiquities area next to the pyramid of King Tati, the first king of the Sixth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, reported important archaeological discoveries dating back to the Old Kingdom And modern and late eras. Dr. Zahi Hawass, an Egyptian archaeologist and head of the mission, said that these discoveries will rewrite the history of this region, especially during the 18th and 19th dynasties of the modern state, during which time King Tati was worshiped and the burial was at that time around his pyramid. Dr. Mostafa El-Feki, Director of the Library of Alexandria, said that the Zahi Hawass Center for Egyptology in the Library has been operating successfully since its establishment in 2018 until now, and today the director of the library is pleased to participate in the ceremony announcing the archaeological discovery in the Saqqara region. The library feels that its affiliation with this work is something that it is proud and proud of, and that what happened is the beginning of the series of archaeological discoveries that the Zahi Hawass Center for Egyptology is practicing in cooperation with the Supreme Council of Antiquities. These discoveries are dedicated to the world to know the history of the ancient Egyptian civilization. Dr. Hawass stated that the mission found the funerary temple of the Queen Naraat, the wife of King Tati, part of which was uncovered in the years prior to the mission, indicating that the mission also found the layout of the temple, in addition to three mud-brick warehouses in the southeastern side of it. To store offerings and tools that were used to revive the Queen’s creed. In addition, 52 wells were found, ranging in depth from 10 to 12 meters, inside which were more than 50 wooden coffins from the New Kingdom era. This is the first time in Saqqara area that coffins dating back three thousand years have been found. These coffins have a human form and are represented on their surface many scenes of the gods who were worshiped during this period in addition to various parts of the texts of the Book of the Dead that help the deceased to pass His journey to the other world. The mission found inside the wells large numbers of archaeological artifacts and statues in the form of deities such as the god Ozer, Ptah, Sukkar, and Oazir, in addition to a unique discovery, where the mission found a papyrus up to four meters long and one meter wide, representing Chapter Seven Ten of the Book of the Dead, and the name of its owner is recorded on it (Bu-Khaa-Af). The same name was found on four statues of Shabati. A wooden coffin was also found on the human body of the same person, in addition to many shabty statues made of wood and faience from the New Kingdom era. This is in addition to a set of wooden masks, as well as the shrine of the god Anubis, the god of cemetery, and statues in good condition were found for him, as well as many games that the deceased used to play in the other world, such as the game (Cent), which is similar to chess currently, as well as the twenty game with the name of the person recorded He was playing it out. Also found were many artifacts representing birds such as goose, a bronze ax indicating that its owner was one of the leaders of the army in the New Kingdom era, and many paintings inscribed with scenes of the deceased and his wife and hieroglyphic writings. One of the most beautiful is a limestone panel in good preservation, on which is depicted a scene of a deceased named Khu-Ptah and his wife named Mut-am-wya. The upper row of the painting depicts the deceased and his wife in a devotional position in front of the god Osir, and the lower row depicts the deceased sitting with his wife behind him, and under the wife’s chair one of their daughters seated close to her nose a lotus flower and decorate her head with a fragrant funnel. In front of the spouses there are six sons in two rows, where we find the top row in which three of their daughters are sitting on the ground, holding the lotus flower close to their noses and covering their heads with perfume tips. In the bottom row, three male sons are standing in front of the deceased and his wife. Dr. Hawass that it is striking that one of the daughters bears the name (Nefertari), she was named after the beloved wife of King Ramses II, and he bore the name of one of the sons (Kha-am-Wast), which is the name of one of the sons of King Ramses II and is considered a wise man of the age and is called the first scholar. As for the titles of the owner of the painting, he was the superintendent of the king’s war wheel, which indicates his important position in the family of 19. Impressive quantities of pottery dating back to the New Kingdom, including pottery establishing trade relations between Egypt and Crete, as well as Syria and Palestine, were also found. Dr. Hawass explained that this discovery confirms that the Saqqara antiquities area was not used for burial during the late era only, but also in the modern state, and he also proved the existence of many workshops that produce these coffins that were purchased through the people, as well as mummification workshops. The mission studied the mummy of a woman, whose owner was found to be suffering from a disease known as “Mediterranean fever” or “swine fever”, a disease that comes from direct contact with the animal and leads to a liver abscess, which is a chronic disease for life. Dr. Sahar Selim, a professor of radiology at Qasr al-Aini, made the necessary studies on the mummies discovered, including a mummy of a child. Studies have determined the causes of death and the age of the deceased at the time of death. Dr. Hawass indicated that the mission uncovered a huge mud brick cabin dating back to the era of the modern state, with a well up to 24 meters deep so far, and we have not yet reached its end, and it is expected to end with a burial chamber. The floor of a hill has been pavedvolume_upcontent_copysharestar_border
This ceremonial fan originally held ostrich feathers. It is made of wood covered with sheets of gold and inlaid with colored glass, turquoise, lapis lazuli, carnelian, and translucent calcite The handle is inset with gold bands at intervals. The palm of the fan is decorated with the king’s twin cartouches, which are protected by vultures wearing the White and Red Crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt, respectively. Several signs are represented: “Was” symbolizing “dominion”; the Shen, symbolizing “eternity”; the “Nebu,” meaning “gold”; and Pet, for “sky From the Tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62), Valley of the Kings, West Thebes. Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. JE 62000
Let,s learn in this day more about Ancient Egyptian Medicine The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma. This document, which may have been a manual of military surgery, describes 48 cases of injuries, fractures, wounds, dislocations and tumors. It dates to Dynasties 16–17 of the Second Intermediate Period in ancient Egypt, c. 1600 BCE.:70 The Edwin Smith papyrus is unique among the four principal medical papyri in existence that survive today. While other papyri, such as the Ebers Papyrus and London Medical Papyrus, are medical texts based in magic, the Edwin Smith Papyrus presents a rational and scientific approach to medicine in ancient Egypt,:58 in which medicine and magic do not conflict. Magic would be more prevalent had the cases of illness been mysterious, such as internal disease. The Edwin Smith papyrus is a scroll 4.68 meters or 15.3 feet in length. The recto (front side) has 377 lines in 17 columns, while the verso (backside) has 92 lines in five columns. Aside from the fragmentary outer column of the scroll, the remainder of the papyrus is intact, although it was cut into one-column pages some time in the 20th century.:70 It is written right-to-left in hieratic, the Egyptian cursive form of hieroglyphs, in black ink with explanatory glosses in red ink. The vast majority of the papyrus is concerned with trauma and surgery, with short sections on gynaecology and cosmetics on the verso. On the recto side, there are 48 cases of injury. Each case details the type of the injury, examination of the patient, diagnosis and prognosis, and treatment.:26–28 The verso side consists of eight magic spells and five prescriptions. The spells of the verso side and two incidents in Case 8 and Case 9 are the exceptions to the practical nature of this medical text.:70 Generic spells and incantations may have been used as a last resort in terminal cases In picture: (Plates vi & vii of the Edwin Smith Papyrus at the Rare Book Room, New York Academy of Medicine. Jeff Dahl – Edited version of Image:EdSmPaPlateVIandVIIPrint The Edwin Smith papyrus, the world’s oldest surviving surgical document. Written in hieratic script in ancient Egypt around 1600 B.C., the text describes anatomical observations and the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of 48 types of medical problems in exquisite detail. Among the treatments described are closing wounds with sutures, preventing and curing infection with honey and moldy bread, stopping bleeding with raw meat, and immobilization of head and spinal cord injuries. Translated in 1930, the document reveals the sophistication and practicality of ancient Egyptian medicine
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC. Among the oldest and most important medical papyri of ancient Egypt, it was purchased at Luxor in the winter of 1873–74 by Georg Ebers. It is currently kept at the library of the University of Leipzig, in Germany. The papyrus was written in about 1500 BC, but it is believed to have been copied from earlier texts. The Ebers Papyrus is a 110-page scroll, which is about 20 meters long. Along with the Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (c. 1800 BC), the Edwin Smith Papyrus (c. 1600 BC), the Hearst papyrus (c. 1600 BC), the Brugsch Papyrus (c. 1300 BC), the London Medical Papyrus (c. 1300 BC), the Ebers Papyrus is among the oldest preserved medical documents. The Brugsch and the London Medical papyri share some of the same information as the Ebers Papyrus. Another document, the Carlsberg Papyrus, is identical to the Ebers Papyrus, though the provenance of the former is unknown. The Ebers Papyrus is written in hieratic Egyptian writing and represents the most extensive and best-preserved record of ancient Egyptian medicine known. The scroll contains some 700 magical formulas and folk remedies. It contains many incantations meant to turn away disease-causing demons and there is also evidence of a long tradition of empiricism.The papyrus contains a “treatise on the heart”. It notes that the heart is the center of the blood supply, with vessels attached for every member of the body. The Egyptians seem to have known little about the kidneys and made the heart the meeting point of a number of vessels which carried all the fluids of the body—blood, tears, urine and semen. Mental disorders are detailed in a chapter of the papyrus called the Book of Hearts. Disorders such as depression and dementia are covered. The descriptions of these disorders suggest that Egyptians conceived of mental and physical diseases in much the same way. The papyrus contains chapters on contraception, diagnosis of pregnancy and other gynecological matters, intestinal disease and parasites, eye and skin problems, dentistry and the surgical treatment of abscesses and tumors, bone-setting and burns. The “channel theory” was prevalent at the time of writing of the Ebers papyrus; it suggested that unimpeded flow of bodily fluids is a prerequisite for good health. It may be a considered a precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology and the subsequently established theory of the four humors, providing a historical connection between Ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, and medieval medicine.
What are the 8 steps of mummification process? 🇪🇬🇪🇬
1. Purify the body
Before the embalming process can begin, the body is washed in water from the Nile and palm wine.
2. Remove the internal organs
A small incision is made in the left side of the body and the liver, lungs, intestines and stomach are removed. They are then washed and packed in natron before being placed in canopic jars.
The heart is left in the body as it is believed to be the center of intelligence, and will be needed in the afterlife.
3. Discard the brain
A rod is inserted through the nostril into the skull and used to break apart the brain so that it can drain out of the nose.
The liquid is then thrown away as it is not thought to be useful.
4. Leave to dry
The body is stuffed and covered with natron, a type of salt, which will absorb any moisture. It is then left for 40 days to dry out.
5. Stuff the body
Once again, it is washed in water from the Nile and covered with oils to help the skin stay elastic.
The natron is scooped out and the body is then stuffed with sawdust and linen to make it look lifelike.
6. Wrap in linen
First, the head and neck are wrapped in strips of linen, then the fingers and toes.
The arms and legs are wrapped separately before being tied together. Liquid resin is used as glue.
7. Add amulets
Charms called amulets are placed in between the layers to protect the body during its journey to the afterlife.
8. Say a prayer
A priest reads spells out loud while the body is being wrapped in order to ward off evil spirits.
He will often wear a mask of Anubis – the god associated with the embalming process and the afterlife.
If you are reading these lines now, it means that you have completed the reading, Leave your impression in a comment. 📖❤️🇪🇬
better than anything, the meditation on death instructs man on his destiny and prompts him to seek the means of accomplishing it. This is why the tomb or the coffin “master” or “mistress of life” and why the wise Ani invites us to think of the final ends to lead a virtuous life and prepare for death; because “Death does not surprise the wise”, or, like Ani s ‘expressed, long before La Fontaine: “There are no surprises for those who do well.” one end to the other of the valley of the Nile, one does not lose sight of the double mountain into which the necropolises sink: the thought of death hardly leaves the Egyptians during their life; but it does not darken it. With them, it encourages the epicurean to new pleasures, the sage to new virtues. Long in advance, they take care of their grave; but they decorate it with attractive subjects. They see in life something else and better than a preparation for death; but they strive to secure an image and a continuation of life in death. We can affirm that they regard life as the supreme good, but on condition that human life is completed by being perpetuated by the participation in the life of the immortal gods. Placing themselves at the antipodes of Buddhist thought, it is “second death”, it is the final disappearance, it is the annihilation, which they regard as the supreme evil and the most appalling punishment. They guarded against it by mummification and magical rites; but to increase the effectiveness of these remedies, they resorted to the guarantees of morality. Indeed, if the virtues found, on earth and during life, sanctions very appreciated in the favors of the king, for example, the esteem and the affection of the contemporaries, the stability of the fortune, the very prolongation of the life , we hoped for more. A good burial and the perpetuity of the name prolonged on earth the same order of sanctions. The protection of the gods, which we already saw exercised during life, produced all its effects beyond death. Doubtless, the spectacle of life and death provoked objections from the skeptic, not only on the solidity of human grandeur and the perpetuity of pleasures, but also on the reality of virtues, on divine providence and on the expectation of future remuneration. However, these absolute doubts, expressed in the Songs of the Harpist or by the Koufi Jackal, aroused little echo. Almost without exception, the Egyptians shared their beliefs and their hopes between the various paradises and the various blessed destinies that their ancestors and their sages promised them. However on this subject, their imagination was displayed with fruitfulness. ” extract from Introduction to the study of moral ideas in ancient Egypt, by Jules Baillet, former student of the École Normale Supérieure, former member of the Archaeological Mission of Cairo